The Web links below are provided for informational purposes only. Links outside of Ocean Explorer have been checked at the time of this page's publication, but the linking sites may become outdated or non-operational over time. - Web page for the Thunder Bay Sinkholes 2008 Expedition - Web site for the 2001 Ocean Explorer Expedition to survey "Shipwreck Alley" in Thunder Bay, Lake Huron
- A free printable book for home and school use introduced in 2004 to celebrate the 200th anniversary of NOAA; nearly 200 pages of lessons focusing on the exploration, understanding, and protection of Earth as a whole system exit icon
- Geologic timeline on the ‘Fossil Mysteries' Web page from the San Diego Natural History Museum exit icon
- 1 minute ROV video clip of conspicuous white benthic mats interspersed with the brownish mats characterizing the lake floor in the vicinity of the sinkhole, and a dark cloudy nepheloid-like plume layer prevailing just over the site of submarine groundwater seepage
- video clip of the footage shot by TBNMS divers during August 06 that shows the variety of benthic mat habitats in this location
- underwater video of El Cajon "boils"
- underwater video of the purple benthic mats from the Middle Island Sinkhole  

Biddanda, B. A., D. F. Coleman, T. H. Johengen, S. A. Ruberg, G. A. Meadows, H. W. VanSumeren, R. R. Rediske, and S. T. Kendall. 2006. Exploration of a submerged sinkhole ecosystem in Lake Michigan. Ecosystems 9:828-842. Available online at  

Ruberg, S.A., D.F. Coleman, T.H. Johengen, G.A. Meadows, H.W. VanSumeren, G.A. LANG, and B.A. Biddanda. 2005. Groundwater plume mapping in a submerged sinkhole in Lake Huron. Marine Technology Society Journal 39(2):65-69. Available online at  

Bohm, H. and V. Jensen. 1998. Build Your Own Programmable Lego Submersible: Project: Sea Angel AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle). Westcoast Words. 39 pages.  

Bohm, H. 1997. Build your own underwater robot and other wet projects. Westcoast Words. 148 pages exit icon - ‘Building a Winogradsky Column: An Educator Guide with Activities in Astrobiology;' 27-page educator guide from NASA Quest exit icon - ‘Investigating Bacteria with the Winogradsky Column;' instructor's guide to teaching about microbial biodiversity; includes detailed discussions and isolation techniques for microbial species commonly found in Winogradsky columns - ‘Vents Program' Web page from NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory exit icon for more information and activities on hydrothermal vent communities.  


For More Information

Contact Paula Keener-Chavis, national education coordinator for the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration, for more information.

Other lesson plans developed for this Web site are available in the Education Section.