The hottest vents (up to 85°C) were found at the foot of the northern crater wall, where they formed a zone of venting in several fields. These fields released substantial quantities of an oil-like liquid, most likely CO2, that probably contributes to the acid waters in this region of the crater. Image courtesy of Vailulu'u 2005 Exploration, NOAA-OE.

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Vailulu’u 2005

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