venting system on a submarine arc volcano

Schematic cartoon of a venting system on a submarine arc volcano. These systems are driven by magma bodies that range in temperature depending on composition. Dashed lines represent permeable crust into which seawater penetrates to form a hydrothermal circulation cell with ascending fluids discharging at ~100°-350°C depending on depth. Yellow bubbles and saw-tooth arrows represent exsolved magmatic fluid. Some chemicals within volcanic vent fluid may precipitate near the sea floor interface as hydrothermal mineralization. The remaining (most) chemicals will buoyantly rise to form “black smoker” plumes. Hydrothermal plumes are sensed as temperature anomalies or optically detected as light scattered off particles and detected chemically as gas and metal concentration anomalies.

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