June 30, 2010
Video courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, INDEX-SATAL 2010. Download video (mp4, 73.2 MB).

This video shows just some of the stunning imagery captured by the high-definition cameras on the Little Hercules remotely operated vehicle (ROV) on June 30, 2010, during the vehicle's second dive down to Kawio Barat volcano. In the video, during the descent to the location where plumes were discovered the previous day, the ROV encounters white plumes of warm sulphur-rich water and follows the plumes to their vent source amongst volcanic rock. The rocks surrounding the vents are covered in white sulphur. Close-up images of both yellow and black "frozen" flows of sulphur are also shown; color indicates the temperature when molten sulphur was extruded. Shrimp and limpets live among the strands of yellow and black sulphur and feed on the bacteria growing near the vents.

The latter portion of the video shows another hydrothermal area on Kawio Barat with a very dense population of stalked barnacles! These vent barnacles have filaments of bacteria growing on their feeding appendages; they retract the appendages to feed on the filaments. A sulfide chimney emitting hot water among a field of chimneys and barnacles as far as the eye could see is also shown; these chimneys are built from mineral precipitation when the hot vent fluids mix with seawater.