Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located underwater, formed when magma from deep within the crust rises to the seafloor. Cooling of the magma can create hydrothermal vents, where superheated and chemical-rich water spews upward, similar to geysers on land. Despite being in areas with no light for sunlight-driven food production, vent sites often support diverse communities of animals that have adapted to produce food using chemical energy, via a process known as chemosynthesis.
Choose from the sections below to further explore ocean exploration education resources on hydrothermal vents and volcanoes.
Read essays written by explorers involved in expeditions to explore submarine volcanoes and hydrothermal vents.Read more
Access selected lessons about hydrothermal vents and volcanoes developed by scientists and educators during recent expeditions.Read more