A “black smoker” on Dive 11. Where the super-hot vent fluid meets very cold ambient sea water (2°C) of the deep sea, minerals that are carried in the fluid precipitate out of solution, forming spectacular vent chimneys. We measured the temperature of the vent fluid at 339°C.

A “black smoker” on Dive 11. Where the super-hot vent fluid meets very cold ambient sea water (2°C) of the deep sea, minerals that are carried in the fluid precipitate out of solution, forming spectacular vent chimneys. We measured the temperature of the vent fluid at 339°C. Image courtesy of NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 2016 Deepwater Exploration of the Marianas.

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2016 Deepwater Exploration of the Marianas

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