Geologists surmise the thickest and most metal-rich ferromanganese crusts are found at depths between 800 and 2,500 meters on seamount flanks and summits. This is due to the co-occurrence of more chemically available metal sources caused by the OMZ, higher flows of water over the rocks where the deposits form, and stronger currents that can remove sediments.

Geologists surmise the thickest and most metal-rich ferromanganese crusts are found at depths between 800 and 2,500 meters on seamount flanks and summits. This is due to the co-occurrence of more chemically available metal sources caused by the Oxygen Minimum Zone, higher flows of water over the rocks where the deposits form, and stronger currents that can remove sediments. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 2015 Hohonu Moana.

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