A hot vent (255 degrees C) near the top of a 38-m-high sulfide chimney in the Loloa Kakai vent field on the Fonualei rift, sampled during dive Q233. The vent fluids forming these giant columnar chimneys are a result of water/rock reaction deep below the seafloor. They have a pH of approximately 5.2, not nearly as acidic as Volcano O cone fluids.

A hot vent (255 degrees C) near the top of a 38-m-high sulfide chimney in the Loloa Kakai vent field on the Fonualei rift, sampled during dive Q233. The vent fluids forming these giant columnar chimneys are a result of water/rock reaction deep below the seafloor. They have a pH of approximately 5.2, not nearly as acidic as Volcano O cone fluids. Image courtesy of MARUM, University of Bremen and NOAA-Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory.

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