Figure 2. Manned submersibles (such as Johnson-Sea-Link shown here) are needed for exploring and sampling the deep, rugged bottoms of coral habitat. This submersible carries video cameras, still cameras, water quality measuring devices, and can retrieve samples using a suction device or a grabbing claw. On left is an evening recovery of the submersible and on the right Dr. S.W. Ross enters the sub for a morning dive. Image courtesy of Ross et al, NOAA-OE, HBOI.